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Native Singaporean Orchid notes: Bulbophyllum Vaginatum
Bulbophyllum Vaginatum is a native species of Singapore and they usually flower after a heavy thunderstorm during a hot period.
It has faint buy beautiful citrus, almost sweet with a hint of Litchi. In Java fruit of this plant is boiled and applied to relieve ear-ache.
According to Ms Eng Soon Teoh's book, NUS researchers were able to isolate 21 phenanthrenes, dihydrophenanthrenes, bibenzyls, phenanthrofuran and other aromatic compounds. Most of the 21 compounds were present in several other Orchid variety. But there was a unique complex molecule phenanthro(4,3-b)furan. No one know if this is responsible for its medicinal properties, but most ancient medicinal records from India, China, Africa have mentioned that this Orchid is used for lot of sickness including cough, bronchitis, etc
Therapeutic Orchid notes:
Ludisia discolor (Ker.-Gawl.) A. Rich.
Chinese names: Xueye Lan (blood leaf orchid), Yisexueye Lan (special colour blood leaf orchid), Shishangou (lotus on the rock): In Hong Kong: rock silk-worm, twisty-ﬂowered orchid
Chinese medicinal names: Shishangou; Xueye Lan; Shichan (rock moth) Zhenjincao (genu- ine golden grass)
Thai name: Wan nam thong
Malay names: Beledu merah (red velvet plant), Baldu merah (red plant) (only applicable to some varieties)
Plant has a creeping rhizome. It ﬂowers in March in Singapore.
Herbal Usage: The whole plant is used in TCM and it may be collected throughout the year. It is used fresh and also sun-dried. It is sweet, slightly astringent, and ‘cool’. It nourishes the lungs, regulates body ﬂuids, puriﬁes the blood, and is anti- inﬂammatory. In Hong Kong, it is used to treat hemoptysis caused by pulmonary tuberculosis, neurasthenia, anorexia, employing 3–10 g in decoction. It relieves coughs. On the Chinese mainland, entire plant is used in TCM to enrich yin as it beneﬁts the lungs, cools the blood and stops bleeding. It is used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, anorexia and neurosis. Rhizomes are listed as 1 of 57 herbal remedies for insect bites in old Thai remedies
Nervilia fordii (Hance) Schultze
Chinese names: Maochunyu Lan (hairy lip yam orchid), Qingtiankui (blue sky sunﬂower), Tiankui (sky sunﬂower)
Chinese medicinal name: Qingtiankui (blue sky sunﬂower), Tiankui (sky sunﬂower)
Vietnamese names: Cay moi la, Tran chau diep, Bau thooc, Thanh thien quy.
Phytochemistry: Seven known ﬂavonoids and one coumarin isolated exhibited antimicrobial activity against Herpes Simples Type-1 virus. 5 ﬂavonoid glycosides, named nervilifordins F–J, were isolated and 2 of these compounds, nervilifordins G and J, revealed anti-inﬂammatory potential by inhibiting nitric oxide production of lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. Ethanol extract of N. fordii shows signiﬁcant antitumor activity in vitro.
Herbal Usage: Leaves of N. fordii are used in Vietnamese folk medicine for managing tuberculosis and chest complaints, 10–15 g daily in decoction. Leaves are also pounded into a poultice to treat abscesses.
In CTM, Qingtiankui is bitter-sweet. The whole plant or stem is used to clear the lungs and stop coughs. It beneﬁts the stomach, relieves indigestion, relieves anxiety, stops pain, clears away heat and toxic materials, and removes toxins from swellings, and is also used to treat pulmonary tuberculosis, bronchitis, pneumonia, mental illness, sores and ulcers, traumatic injury, inﬂammation of the oral cavity and laryngitis. For stomatitis, it is recommended to chew on fresh pseudobulbs. For infantile malnutrition, malabsorption or worms, 5–10 g (or 6–12 g) of the orchid is cooked with lean pork or hens’ eggs and served as food in Guangxi province.
Oberonia cavaleriei Finet. Syn. Oberonia myosurus (Forster) Lindl.
Chinese name: Bangyeyuanwei Lan (stick leaf eagle tail orchid)
Chinese medicinal name: Yancong
It ﬂowers from August to October and is found in at 1200–1500 m in China (Sichuan, Yunnan, Guizhou, Jiangxi, Guangxi), Vietnam, Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal.
Herbal Usage: Herb is obtained from Yunnan, Guizhou and Jiangxi. It can be harvested the whole year round and used fresh or be divided into sections and dried. Herb is acrid in taste and slightly bitter. Its nature is cool. CTm uses it to clear heat and urinary discharge, stop bleeding from superﬁcial wounds and to remove bruises. It is used to treat traumatic injuries, fractures, and strangury resulting from urinary stones. For the preparation of the decoction, 9–15 g of the orchid is used. It is used as follows:
Other scent notes
Grapefruit, Mulberry, Persimmon, Yellow cherry, Mangosteen, Kiwi and Peach