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Habenaria ciliolaris Kraenzl.
Chinese names: Yufeng Lan (jade phoenix orchid), Cugenyufeng Lan (a bundle of roots jade phoenix orchid); Maotingyufeng Lan (Maoting jade phoenix orchid); bird’s bill orchid
It is found in Hong Kong and Taiwan around 800 m in exposed areas of forest. It also occurs in shaded locations in forests and along valleys.
Herbal Usage: According to TCM, its stem improves weak kidneys, yang elements, removes heat and detoxiﬁes. Herb is used to treat nocturnal emissions, impotence, urinary problems, hernia, leucorrhoea, gonorrhea, stomach ache, tuberculous cough, kidney infection and snake bites.
Habenaria commelinifolia (Roxb.) Wall ex Lindl.
Chinese name: Fueyufeng hua
Indian name: Devsunda; Jadu, Jaitjadu (Sadani); Ridhi Vridhi
Myanmar name: Kadaw sut
Herbal Usage: Plant is eaten as a vegetable and is supposed to be a blood puriﬁer. It is used to cure blebs on the palm. Dried root of the orchid is used to treat spermatorrhoea. It is considered to have an oestrogenic effect because, in India, its bark has the reputation of keeping women youthful and healthy and it is used to treat gynecological conditions.
Habenaria davidii Franch. Syn. Habenaria leucopecten Schltr.
Chinese name: Changjuyufenghua (Long distance jade phoenix ﬂower)
Chinese medicinal name; Shuangshencao
It ﬂowers from June to August. This endemic species is found in forests, thickets, and grasslands in a crescent from Hubei, Yunnan and Guizhou to Sichuan, Yunnan and southern Xizang Yunnan and Tibet.
Herbal Usage: Roots are used in Chi- nese herbal medicine to reduce swelling and to protect the kidneys. The herb is used to treat hernia and ﬁrm swellings of the lymph nodes.
Habenaria delavayi Finet
Chinese name: Houbanyufenghua (thick petal jade phoenix ﬂower)
Chinese medicinal names: Jishenshen (chicken kidney ginseng); Duiduishen (paired ginseng)
Flowering season is May to August in China occurring in Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet.
Herbal Usage: Jishenshen is collected in autumn from Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan and Tibet. Tubers are either used fresh or dried for storage. Sometimes used as a tonic, it is also suitable for lumbago, weakness of “kidney”, dizziness, tinnitus, hernia and neurosis. It is reputed to strengthen the body.
Habenaria dentata (Sw.) Schltr.
Chinese names: Emaoyufeng Hua (feather jade phoenix ﬂower), Baifeng Lan (white phoenix orchid), Dalucao (large heron grass), Yufeng Lan (jade phoenix), Dongpuyufeng Lan (Dongpu ﬂaked teeth heron orchid); Dongfubaifeng Lan (Dongpu white phoenix/ white heron/phoenix orchid); Chipianlu Lan; Emaoyufenghua (goose-feather jade blossom) Chinese medicinal names: Shuangshenzi (two kidney son); Baihuacao (white ﬂower herb); Tianaebaodan (swan carrying an egg); Yufenghuagen (jade-phoenix-ﬂower root);
Duiduishen (double ginseng)
Taiwanese name: Bai Feng Lan (White phoenix orchid)
Thai names: Naang Oua Noi, Nang ua noi
It has a wide distribution that extends from the Ryukyu Islands of Japan to Taiwan and Hong Kong across southern in Fujian, Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guizhou and Yunnan to the Philippines, Indonesia, Indochina, Thailand, Myanmar, Nepal and Himalayan India.
Plants for medicinal use are collected in autumn.
Herbal Usage: CTM mentions that stems “beneﬁt the lungs and kidneys” and are diuretic, anti-inﬂammatory and can detoxify. Stems are used to treat weak kidneys, impotence, stomach ache, orchitis, dysuria, swollen kidneys, carbuncles and coughs caused by tuberculosis.
Habenaria diphylla (Nimmo) Dalzel Syn. Habenaria humistrata Rolfe ex Downie
Thai name: Tupmup mot lin
It is found in damp locations and on rocks in forests or valleys. It ﬂowers in June in China, July to September or just August in India.
Herbal Usage: The whole plant is used for treating insect bites in Thailand. Flowers popularly known as Jeevahi Purusharatna are used to treat asthma in the Western Ghats.
Habenaria diplonema Schltr.
Chinese name: Xiaoqiaoyufeng Hua
Chinese herbal name: Shuangxianerye Lan (two thread, two leafed orchid)
An endemic species, found in northern Fujian, southwest Yunnan and southwest Sichuan.
Herbal Usage: Herbs are obtained from Yunnan. Roots are used to improve kidney and liver function and to regulate menstruation.
Habenaria fordii Rolfe
Chinese name: Changjukuorui Lan (long distance broad pistil orchid), Xianbanyufeng Hua
Inﬂorescence is many-ﬂowered. Flowers are white and appear in July and August. It is an endemic species, distributed in uah Guangdong, Guangxi and Yunnan, in damp locations and on soil-covered rocks in forests and along valleys.
Herbal Usage: Herbs are obtained from Guangxi and Yunnan. Root is used to treat indigestion in children.
Habenaria furcifera Lindl. Syn. Habenaria ovalifolia
Chinese name: Mihuayufeng Hua
This is a terrestrial herb found in deciduous forests along moist slopes besides streams in western Peninsular India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bhutan, Sikkim, Myanmar, China and Thailand and Laos.
Flowering period is August to September in India, with a more extended period in some parts.
Herbal Usage: Tubers are used in Ayurveda to treat wasting diseases, fever blood disorders, hemorrhage and fainting. A paste of this orchid is used for cuts, wounds and snake bites.
Habenaria hollandiana Santapau
Plant is robust, erect, terrestrial, with prominent longitudinal veins, that is distributed in eastern Himalaya, Assam and the Eastern Ghats.
Herbal Usage: Kondareddies and Valmikis of Andra Pradesh use a fresh paste of the plant to treat scorpion stings. Tubers are also made into a paste to treat scorpion stings and maggot-infected sores in Bangladesh.
Habenaria limprichtii Schltr.
Chinese name: Kuanyaogeyufeng Hua
A robust terrestrial herb. Floral bracts are large, green, lanceolate. Sepals are light green. Flowering season is June to August in China and July to August in Thailand. The species is found in thickets and grasslands in northern Thailand.
Herbal Usage: In China, it is used for “feminine nourishment”, and to treat nephritis and improve renal function. Oestrogens made their ﬁrst appearance on Earth in fungi and oestrogenic compounds are quite prevalent in plants.
Habenaria linguella Lindl.
Chinese name and medicinal name: Poshen
The species occurs in forests and grasslands at 500–2500 m in Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Yunnan and Hong Kong; also in Vietnam.
Herbal Usage: The plant is used to clear “heaty lungs”. A decoction is made with 9–15 g of the herb.
Habenaria longicorniculata J Graham Syn. Habenaria longecalcarata A. Rich.
Indian name: Devasunda. Tamil name: Kozhikilangu Japanese name: Oze-no-sawa-tombo
It ﬂowers in July to September in the Western Ghats; August to November in Tamil Nadu. It is found at 800–1900 m, extending to Orissa and Bihar in the north-East.
Herbal Usage: Natti Vaidyas (folk practitioners) reported during a meeting that fresh tubers were eaten to reduce scrotal enlargement. All parts of the plant can be used to control pain and swelling. A paste of crushed tuber is mixed with an equal volume of turmeric powder, and the resultant colored paste is applied to the affected site to correct leukoderma.
Habenaria marginata Colebr.
Indian and Bangladeshi name: Humari
Common Name: Golden Yellow Habenaria
It ﬂowers from July, and fruits ripen by November in India. Flowering season is August to September in Bhutan and October to November in Nepal.
It is a small terrestrial herb distributed over a large area that extends from Pakistan across northern India to Orissa, Nepal, Bhutan and Bangladesh to Myanmar and Thailand.
Herbal Usage: In the Niyamgiri Hills of Orissa in India, it is used to treat malignant ulcers. It is also reported as being used in Bangladesh to treat malignant ulcers Tubers are cooked and eaten as a vegetable at the Sanjay National Park in Madhya Pradesh.
Habenaria pectinata D. Don
Chinese name: Jianyeyufeng Hua
Indian name: Safed musli
Plants are terrestrial. Flowering season is August. The species occurs in forests around 1800 m in temperate northeast India, Nepal and Yunnan. It was observed to inhabit shady banks on the edges of temperate forests at 2000–3000 m in Indian Himalayas.
Herbal Usage: The leaves are crushed and used to treat snake bites in India. Mixed with condiments, the tubers provide an herbal remedy for arthritis. Its usage in China is different. Here, the whole plant is used to treat coughs arising from weakness, nephritis and pain at the waist.
Habenaria petelotii Gagnep.
Chinese name: Liebanyufeng Hua
Chinese medicinal name: Danshencao
Taiwanese name: You Mao Yu Feng Lan (Little feather jade phoenix orchid)
The species is found in forests and along valleys in the southern provinces of China at 300–1600 m (Anhui, Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangxi, Hunan, Guizhou, Guangxi, southeast Yunnan) and in Vietnam.
Herbal Usage: It is used in China to treat renal insufﬁciency, coughs from “heat lungs”, external injuries with bleeding, erectile dysfunction, hernia and nocturnal bed-wetting in children.
Habenaria plantaginea Lindl.
Bangladeshi name: Kusuma gadda
This common Habenaria species is found in the under-storey in the dry zone forests in Sri Lanka, all over India below 900 m (Abraham and Vatsala) and in Bhutan between 1000 and 2500 m. It also occurs in Bangladesh, Myanmar and the Lesser Sunda Islands.
Herbal Usage: Tubers are used to treat wasting diseases, fever, disorders of blood, hemorrhage and fainting. In the Eastern Ghats of Andra Pradesh, tubers together with black pepper and garlic, are pounded into a paste and converted into tablets. One or two tablets are given to relieve chest pain and stomach ache. In Bangladesh, tubers are also used to treat chest pain and stomach ache.
Habenaria rhodocheila Hance
Chinese name and medicinal name: Chenghuangyufeng Hua
Thai names: Sanh hin, Lin mangkon, Pat daeng
Thai and Malaysian varieties bear more ﬂowers, and their colour is more intense. Flowering season is September to November. Stem and leaves dry out after ﬂowering and remain dormant during the dry season. When the rains appear in May, vegetative growth begins.
The species is widely distributed in Southeast Asia and from Hainan northwards to Guangdong, Hong Kong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Jiangxi and Fujian.
Herbal Usage: In China, it is applied on ﬁnger ulcers to promote their healing. Decoction prepared with 3–9 g of the herb is used to treat ‘heat-ness’, swellings, traumatic injuries and for pain relief.
Habenaria roxburghii, Nicolson Syn. Habenaria platyphylla Spreng
It occurs in the plains and scrub jungle up to 800 m, often sheltered within thorny bushes and on exposed rocks.
Herbal Usage: In Tamil Nadu, it is used in Ayurvedic medicines. Ayurveda practitioners use the tubers to treat wasting diseases, fever, disorders of the blood, haemorrhage and fainting. About 10–15 g of the tubers is crushed with 2–3 g of pepper and garlic, and the extract is taken orally for snake bites by the Konda reddis in Andra Pradesh.
Habenaria stenopetala Lindl.
Chinese name: Xiabanyufenghua
Chinese medicinal name: Jishencao
A terrestrial herb of variable height. It ﬂowers in August in Thailand, and to October in China, also August to October in India.
It is found in open areas or in dipterocarp forests in Pakistan, northern India, Southeast Asia and in Tibet, Guizhou, Taiwan and the Ryukyu Islands of Japan at 300–1800 m.
Herbal Usage: In CTM it is used to treat erectile dysfunction and hernias. It enhances kidney and sexual functions. The medicine is prepared by boiling 3–9 g of the dried plant.
There are 54 species of Habenaria in China, of which 13 are used in Chinese herbal medicine. An equal number of Habenaria species are used medicinally in India. The usages in the two large Asian nations do not overlap and many species which occur in both countries may be used in one but not in the other.
Hemipilia cordifolia Lindl. Syn. Hemipelia yunnanensis (Finet) Schltr.
Chinese names: Dianshehui Lan (Yunnan beak tongue orchid), Xinyeshehui Lan
Chinese medicinal name: Niudanshen
Taiwanese name: Yu Shan Yi Ye Lan (Jade moun- tain single leaf orchid)
The species is distributed in Nepal, Bhutan, northeast India, Myanmar, Xizang Yunnan, Sichuan at 1500–3500 m and in Taiwan. On the island, it is found in the Central Mountain Range at 2500–3000 m on grassland.
Herbal Usage: Chinese herbalists believe that the root beneﬁts the kidney. It is diuretic, and is also used to treat hernia and kidney diseases. A decoction is made with 6–15 g of the herb.
Hemipilia flabellata Bureau & Franch
Chinese names: Duyeyizhi Hua (one leaf ﬂower), Meteor rain grass, Shanchunshehui Lan
Chinese medicinal name: Duyeyizhi Hua (soli- tary leaf ﬂower)
It grows in damp, humus-rich soil, sometimes in mossy places on the ground or in rock crevices at the edge of lime-stone forests at 2500–3200 m in Sichuan, Yunnan and Tibet and in the Shan state of Myanmar.
Herbal Usage: Herb is obtained from Sichuan, Yunnan and Guizhou. The drug prepared from the orchid is used to “moisten the lungs”, and is used to treat dry coughs, tuberculosis, trauma, excessive sweating and renal colic.
Hemipiliopsis purpureopunctata (K.Y. Lang) Y.B. Luo & S.C. Chen Syn. Habenaria purpureopunctata K.Y.
Flowering season is June to July. It occurs in broad-leaved evergreen forest, alpine oak forest, grassy slopes and sandy river banks in southeast Xizang and northeast India.
Herbal Usage: In China, the herb is used to relax tense muscles. The entire plant is used.
Herminium lanceum (Thunb. ex Sw.) Vuijk
Chinese names: Shuangchunjiaopan Lan (two lips, angle plate orchid), Shuangshencao (two kidney grass), Chachunjiaopan Lan
Chinese medicinal name: Yaozicao
It is a terrestrial herb, thriving among grasses in forests, thickets and grassy slopes, and among rocks at 1100–3500 m. It ﬂowers from June to August or September in mainland China, April to September in Taiwan, July to August in Sikkim, July to October in Bhutan and June to August in Nepal. Herb is obtained from Shandong to Tibet and from Dongbei (Northeast China, Manchuria) to Guangxi and Taiwan.
Herbal Usage: The root is said to beneﬁt the lung; it is used to treat tuberculosis. It also beneﬁts the kidney, strengthens the muscles and bones and stops bleeding. The decoction is prepared with 6–15 g of the herb. In India, it enjoys usage as a nutrient or a tonic.
Herminium monorchis (L.) R. Br.
Chinese names: Jiaopan Lan (angle plate orchid), Ren shen guo
Chinese medicinal name: Rentouqi
Flowering period is June to September. Two ovoid tubers are formed each season, the larger going on to produce leaves and ﬂower the following season, the smaller detaching to start a new plant. Its principal form of reproduction is vegetative.
It has wide distribution across temperate Eurasia from Japan across Korea, northern China and Russia, and all of Europe. It also occurs in central Asia and the Himalayas. This terrestrial orchid is found in moist locations, in damp grassland or short turf, on non-calcareous soils.
Herbal Usage: Herb is obtained from the north- ern provinces and the Yangzi region. Entire plant is used to enrich yin. It beneﬁts the “kidney and stomach” and regulates menstruation. It is prescribed for a nervous breakdown, confu- sion, insomnia, thirst, anorexia, and precocious greying of hair, or to strengthen and nourish a weak body.
In a small, non-controlled, open trial of 93 patients suffering from chronic constipation, oral treatment with glucomannan 1 g three times a day resulted in improvement and there were no side effects.
Hetaeria obliqua Blume
Chinese name: Xiebanfanchun Lan Malay name: Pokok tumbak hutan
The species is found in lowland forests in Sumatra, Thailand, Nicobar Islands, Peninsular Malaysia and Borneo.
Herbal Usage: Leaves were pounded to make a poultice which was used to treat sores and infected wounds in Peninsular Malaysia. Leaves of a second orchid, Thrixspermum pardale, were added in making the poultice for treating ulcers of the nose by villagers in Malaya.
Hippeophyllum scortechinii (Hook f.) Schltr.
Malay name: Setawar baker perah
This epiphytic species is distributed in Sumatra, the Malay Peninsula, Java, Borneo and Sulawesi. It is found in the lowlands of Pahang and Perak in shady locations, usually near rivers.
Herbal Usage: Malays in Kuala Lipis, a town in Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, squeezed the hot juice from heated leaves of this orchid into the ear to relieve earache.
Holcoglossum amesianum (Rchb. f.) Christenson
Chinese names: Dagencaoshe Lan (big slot tongue orchid), Wanda Lan (ten thousand generation orchid), Diao lan (hanging orchid), Jiegucao (bone setting herb)
Chinese medicinal name: Jiuzhualong
Myanmar name: Moe kadol
It is epiphytic on trees growing on limestone rocks in the shade.
Herbal Usage: CTM states the whole plant as an antipyretic. It diminishes inﬂammation, improves blood ﬂow, and removes gas and humidity. It is used to treat malaria, sore throat, mastitis, urinary infection, rheumatic pain, backache, irregular menses, traumatic bleeding and traumatic fractures.
Holcoglossum quasipinifolium (Hayata) Schltr.
Chinese names: Songye Lan (pine leaf orchid), (pine needle orchid), Qiaochun Lan (sledge lip orchid), Caoshe Lan (slot tongue orchid); Yeludongqing (green leaf pine).
This semi-terete leaf orchid, once thought to be was endemic in Taiwan, where it occurs invthe Central Mountain Range at 2000–2500 m, often growing on the branches of Quercus.
Herbal Usage: The whole plant is used to remove wind and dampness. It causes diuresis and is used for joint pains. It has a broader range of medicinal usage being also used to treat varied infections (malaria, sore throat, mastitis and urinary tract infection) and bleeding disorders (irregular menstruation and traumatic bleeding).
Ipsea speciosa Lindl.
Common name: Daffodil orchid
Sinhalese names: Kiri Walla Kada; Naga-maru Ala (tuber causing the sister’s death)
Herbal Usage: Tubers are sought after by sorcerers for making charms and love potions and by village quacks and medicine-men for use as an aphrodisiac.
The species is already rare, and may be rendered extinct through overcollection. It is said to have aphrodisiac properties. The popular Singhalese name Naga-maru Ala translates as “the tuber that caused a sister’s death”.
Ischnogyne manadarinanum (Kranzl.) Schltr.
Chinese name: Shoufang Lan (slim house orchid)
Flowering season is May to June. This saxicolous orchid grows on rocks in forest and ravines at 700–1500 m in Shaanxi, Gansu, Hubei, Sichuan and Guizhou in China.
Herbal Usage: Herb is obtained from Shanxi, Hubei and Sichuan. In China, the whole plant is sometimes used to treat tuberculous patients who cough, and bronchitis. The herb is obtained from Shaanxi, Hubei and Sichuan.